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Dynamo is used to manage the state of services that have very high reliability requirements and need tight control over the tradeoffs between availability, consistency, cost-effectiveness and performance.Amazon’s platform has a very diverse set of applications with different storage requirements.Much of the engineering work at Amazon, whether it is in infrastructure, distributed systems, workflow, rendering, search, digital, similarities, supply chain, shipping or any of the other systems, is equally highly advanced. The text of the paper is copyright of the ACM and as such the following statement applies: © ACM, 2007. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. The definitive version was published in SOSP’07, October 14–17, 2007, Stevenson, Washington, USA, Copyright 2007 ACM 978-1-59593-591-5/07/0010 Giuseppe De Candia, Deniz Hastorun, Madan Jampani, Gunavardhan Kakulapati, Avinash Lakshman, Alex Pilchin, Swaminathan Sivasubramanian, Peter Vosshall and Werner Vogels Reliability at massive scale is one of the biggest challenges we face at Amazon.com, one of the largest e-commerce operations in the world; even the slightest outage has significant financial consequences and impacts customer trust.The official reference for the paper is: Giuseppe De Candia, Deniz Hastorun, Madan Jampani, Gunavardhan Kakulapati, Avinash Lakshman, Alex Pilchin, Swami Sivasubramanian, Peter Vosshall and Werner Vogels, “Dynamo: Amazon's Highly Available Key-Value Store”, in the Proceedings of the 21st ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, Stevenson, WA, October 2007. The platform, which provides services for many web sites worldwide, is implemented on top of an infrastructure of tens of thousands of servers and network components located in many datacenters around the world.Dynamo is internal technology developed at Amazon to address the need for an incrementally scalable, highly-available key-value storage system.

As such Amazon’s software systems need to be constructed in a manner that treats failure handling as the normal case without impacting availability or performance.To achieve this level of availability, Dynamo sacrifices consistency under certain failure scenarios.It makes extensive use of object versioning and application-assisted conflict resolution in a manner that provides a novel interface for developers to use.In addition, to support continuous growth, the platform needs to be highly scalable.One of the lessons our organization has learned from operating Amazon’s platform is that the reliability and scalability of a system is dependent on how its application state is managed.

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