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About Google Book Search Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. PROFSSSOR OF BOTANY, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA; MEMBER OF THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA; VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE ECOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, ETC. Americans have been behind in this important field, notwithstanding, that American plants harbor some of the most destructive fungi, which, through our careless methods of agriculture and horticulture up to the present, are annually destructive to the extent of millions of dollars. CHAPTER XIV.— Higher Fungi 120 Ascomycetales; Sexuality, Claussen and Harper; Life Cycle; Bibliography. — Sac Fungi in Particular (Yeasts, etc.) 131 Endomycetaceae, Exoascaceae; Saccharomycetaceae; Yeasts, cells and fer- mentation, etc.; Systematic Position. He finds on such study, that broadly speaking, there are similarities of structure and function in both groups of dependent plants, in fact, he finds that the function of these plants is connected with cell organization and structure and vice versa. The classification of these colorless (chlorophylless) lower plants has been elaborated in recent years with considerable detail by various authors, so that the broad fundamental facts both of taxonomy and phylogeny are known fairly well, but much remains to be done along the classificatory lines, especially, since the life histories of many of the bacteria and fungi are incompletely known. These spores bore their way through the chitinous covering of a healthy fly by means of a germ tube and the MOULD FUNGI 105 hyphae which enter the body of the fly bud like yeast cells, which are carried to all parts of the insect's body. Entomophthora sph(trosperma has a richly branched nutritive mycelium, which grows through the body of insects. Botanical Gazette, 47: 418-423, May, 1909; Heterothallism in Bread Mould, Rhizopus nigricans. The repair of wounds will be discussed with the consideration of the pathologic anatomy of plants, which will form a separate chapter of this treatise. The ploughing, discing, harrowing and cultivation of the soil frequently abrade roots, break them off, or seriously wound them.

Google Book Search helps readers discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. This lack is being rapidly remedied and the appearance of text-books by Duggar, Stevens, Hall and Stevens, Mel T. Smith, and others, augurs well for the future of this line of literary and scientific labor. CHAPTER XVI.— Sac Fungi (Continued) 143 Gymnoascaceae; Aspergillaceae; Elaphomycetaceae; Terfeziaceae; Tuberaceae (Truffles); Myriangiaceae. 271 Etiology; Predisposing Causes; Determining Causes; Physical Character of Soil; Climatic and Meteorologic Factors, Effect of Smoke, etc.; Trauma- tism; Animate Agents of Disease; Insects. — Plants as Disease Producers, Epiphytotism, Prophy- laxis 298 Vegetal Agents of Disease; Parasitic Flowering Plants; Fungous Organisms as the Cause of Disease; Mechanic Injuries; Injuries Due to Meteorologic Causes; Infection; Incubation; Duration of Disease; Dissemination of Fungi; Epiphytotisms (Epidemics); Prophylaxis. 564 Classification; Stag-head; Root Asphyxiation; Desiccation; Water-logging; (Edema; Frost Necrosis; Apple Fruit Spots; Water-core of Apple; Die- back, or Exanthema; Mottle-leaf; Curly-top of Sugar Beets; Peach Yel- lows; Tip-burn of Potato; Leaf -casting; Curly-dwarf of Potato; Bean Mosaic; Mosaic of Tobacco; Bibliography. LABORATORY EXERCISES IN THE CULTURAL STUDY OF FUNGI CHAPTER XXXVII.— Laboratory and TEAcm NO Methods 581 Introductory Remarks; Lesson i, Micrometry; Lesson 2, Plugging Test- tubes, etc.; Lesson 3, Microscopic Study of Culture Material; Stains; Lesson 4, Liquid Nutrient Solutions; Lesson 5, Potatoes as Medium; Lesson 6, Solid Vegetable Substances; Lesson 7, Plant Juices; Lesson 8, Milk, Beer- wort; Lesson 9, Bouillon; Lesson 10, Eggs; Lesson 11, Nutrient Gelatin; Lesson 12, Agar- Agar; Lesson 13, Various Nutrient Agars; Lesson 14, General Directions for Making Plant Agars; Lesson 15, Potato Juice Agar; Lesson 16, Starch Agar; Lesson 17, Culture Media for Nitric Organisms; Lesson 18, Standardization of Culture Media; Lesson 19, Germination Studies; Lesson 20, Counting of Yeasts and Bacteria; Lesson 21, Cultiva- tion of Yeasts on Gypsum Blocks, Method of Pouring Plates, Streak Method; Lesson 22, Isolation of Fungi; Lesson 23, Water Analysis; Lesson 24, Methods of Identification; Lesson 25, Plate Counter; Lesson 26, Sys- tematic Bacteriology; Lesson 27; Scheme for the Study of Bacteria; Lesson 28, Detailed Study of Bacteria; Lesson 29, Directions for the Study of Pathogenic Fungi. — ^Laboratory and Teaching Methods (Continued) 643 Lesson 30, Inoculation Experiments; Lesson 31, Do.; Lesson 32, Do.; Lesson 33, Do.; Lesson 34, Do.; Lesson 35, Experiments with Artificial Wounding of Plants; Lesson 36, Gas Injuries; Lesson 37, Enzyme Diseases; Lesson 38, Study of Mistletoe; Lesson 39, Wire Worms in Plants; Lesson 40, Relation of Light to Pathogenic Conditions; Lesson 41, Withering, or Wilt- ing of Plants; Lesson 42, Methods of Sectioning, Celloidin, Paraffin; Lesson 43, Freezing and Cutting of Material; Lesson 44, Use of Drawing and Projection Apparatus, Drawing Methods; Lesson 45, Suggestions to Teachers and Students; Lesson 46, Content of Field Trips and Excursions. — Synopsis of Families and Principal Genera of Myxo- GASTRALES 693 APPENDIX VT. With this clearly in view, the mycologist finds that he has to deal with three distinct classes of chlorophylless plants, namely: Class Myxomycetes (slime moulds). It may be many years before a generally acceptable nomenclature and classifi- cation will be an accomplished fact. After the death of the host, the hyphae break through the surface in connected strands part of which attach the larva, or insect's dead body, to the substratum and part form a thick white mantle over the surface. The conidiospores are elongated ellipsoidal, 5 to 8/i broad by 15 to 26/i long. The resting spores produced as azy* gospores are spheric and 20 to 35/4 broad with a smooth yellow wall. Botanical Gazette, 43: 415-418, June, 1907; A Possible Means of Identifying the Sex of ( ) and (— ) Races in the Mucors. xxxvii: 880- 881, June 6, 1 91 3; On the Occurrence of a Toxin in Juice Expressed from the Bread Mould, Rhizopus nigricans. Limbs are broken off and bark removed by farm implements.

Do not assume that just because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries. — Histology and Chemistry of Fungi 52 Histology; Cell Contents; Colors; Physiology; Enzymes; Classification of Enzymes in Fungi; Chemotaxis. — General Physiology of Fungi 61 Influence of Light; Luminosity; Liberation of Spores. Sexual reproduction is by the conjugation of two gametes dissimilar in size, heterogamic and thus these fungi connect the ZYGOMYCETALES with the OOMYCETALES where oogamous reproduction is displayed. The abrasion of a tree by the branch of a neighboring tree rubbing against it or the cutting of large lateral roots in laying curb- stones must be classed as wound phenomena.

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The keys are given with the anticipation that they will prove useful to the student and teacher who desire exercises in the classification of the fungi: The illustrations have been chosen with care, and credit is given in all cases for those borrowed from other books and monographs. Then, too, the author has found it convenient to replace the name of a family, or order, as given by Engler for one used by Wettstein, or some other author, where such replacement is recommended by American usage, or where etymolog- ically the name is more suggestive of the character of the group, and, therefore, best for the use of students who do not expect to follow out the intricacies of any system of classification. If we look for such an ancestral form among the algae, we find that it must have been related to Vou- cheria, if not identic with that filamentous siphonaceous green alga with reproductive organs, as oogonia and antheridia. such as the beech, or the removal of sheets of birch bark, opens up wounds of vari- ous menace to the health of the tree. Maintaining the low power consumption of 2.5W, Flatprop EQP is now capable of delivering 186 litres per minute of oxygen at an inlet pressure of 2.0 Bar.Frictionless operation ensures the same unrivalled accuracy and repeatability with the minimal hysteresis that medical device manufacturers have come to rely on.It is conceded on all sides at present that fertility is due not alone to the chemical character of the soil, but also to other conditions which are quite as influential, such as, the physical state, the bacterial and fungous flora and the presence or absence of toxic substances. A process is sent into the oogonium from the antheridium and a single male nucleus passes into the oogo- nium. Therefore, all generic keys are omitted because the introduction of them under each family would increase the size of the book unduly. The hyphae of the mycelium are tubular, branched and unicellular. Wingless individuals then abandon the roots and crawl up the stems to the leaves, where they form galls. A study of the mycologic flora of the soil can only be pursued satisfactorily by those who have been trained in cultural methods. A cell wall is developed about the oospheres and the male and female nuclei unite, while the periplasm is used in the formation of the spore wall (episporium). The swarm spores (zoospores), which are formed much as in Saprolegnia^ have only a single flagellum. Formerly introduced into Europe, it was very destructive to European grape vines until it was found that it could be controlled by grafting the European vine on the roots of American varieties.

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