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Search strategies were adjusted to each database, based on controlled and uncontrolled vocabularies and search software.

The types of documents searched in the databases included journal articles, books, book chapters, reports, conference papers, and dissertations.

In addition, the bibliographies of all reviewed articles were used to identify any further literature. The following considerations are drawn from studies included in the evidence review, the broader literature, and expert opinion.

Search Strategy OHG Trials Register via Cochrane Register of Studies (Searched 8/21/12) ZETOC Conference Proceedings (Whole Database) fluoride AND water AND caries fluoridation AND water AND caries fluoride AND water AND carious fluoridation AND water AND carious fluoride AND water AND dental fluoridation AND water AND dental fluoride AND water AND tooth fluoridation AND water AND tooth fluoride AND water AND teeth fluoridation AND water AND teeth Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to November 2, 2012) Proquest (To November 5, 2012) ab(water*) AND ab(caries OR carious OR dental OR tooth OR teeth OR plaque) Economic Review The search for economic evidence included the following bibliographic databases: Pub Med, Centres for Reviews and Dissemination – University of York (CRD-YORK), Econ Lit (EBSCOhost), Embase (OVID), ERIC (Pro Quest), Social Sciences Citation Index SSCI (Web of Science), and World Cat. Engineering and administrative recommendations for water fluoridation, 1995. Mc Donagh M, Whiting P, Bradley M, Cooper J, Sutton A, Chestnutt I, Misso K, Wilson P, Treasure E, Kleinjen J. National Health Service Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. The Community Guide does not conduct systematic reviews of implementation considerations.

[3,4] Along with the CDC and the ADA, the American Medical Association, the American Cancer Society, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the National Institutes of Health, the National Parents-Teachers Association, and the World Health Organization support drinking water fluoridation.

Based on these benefits, the Santa Clara Valley Water District Board of Directors decided in November of 2011 to provide optimal levels of fluoride at its three water treatment plants.

Pub Med, Searched: 11/26/2013Results: 360 #1 "fluoridation"[mesh] or "fluorides"[mesh] or "fluorine"[mesh] or fluorid*[all fields] or fluorin*[all fields] or flurin*[all fields] or flurid*[all fields] #2 "dietary supplements"[mesh] or "water supply"[mesh] or water*[all fields] #3 (("teeth" OR "tooth" OR “dental” OR "enamel" OR "root" OR "roots" OR dentin*) AND ( "caries"[all fields] or "carious"[all fields] or decay* or lesion* or demineral* or remineral*)) #4 “dental plaque"[mesh] OR "tooth demineralization"[mesh] OR “caries” OR “carious” #5 (("teeth" OR "tooth" OR "enamel" OR "root" OR "roots" OR dentin*) AND “plaque”)) #6 "dental health surveys"[mesh] OR "dmf index" or "dental plaque index" #7 "case reports"[Publication Type] OR "Comment" [Publication Type] OR "letter"[Publication Type] OR "editorial"[Publication Type] #8 "economics" [Subheading] OR "Economics"[Mesh] OR "Cost-Benefit Analysis"[Mesh] OR "Health Expenditures"[Mesh] OR "Capital Expenditures"[Mesh] OR "Cost of Illness"[Mesh] OR "Cost Savings"[Mesh] OR "Health Care Costs"[Mesh] OR "Quality-Adjusted Life Years"[Mesh] OR "Fees, Dental"[Mesh] OR economic[Title/Abstract] OR economic*[title/abstract] OR "cost"[Title/Abstract] or "costs"[title/abstract] or "costly"[title/abstract] OR benefit*[title/abstract] OR "dollar"[Title/Abstract] or "dollars"[title/abstract] OR "expenditure"[Title/Abstract] or "expenditures"[title/abstract] OR "wtp"[Title/Abstract] OR "willingness to pay"[Title/Abstract] OR increment*[Title/Abstract] OR "sensitivity analysis"[Title/Abstract] OR "sensitivity analyses"[Title/Abstract] OR "breakeven"[Title/Abstract] OR "break even"[Title/Abstract] OR "discount rate"[Title/Abstract] OR "discount rates"[Title/Abstract] OR "lost productivity"[Title/Abstract] OR "value"[Title/Abstract] OR "qaly"[Title/Abstract] OR "daly"[Title/Abstract] OR "quality adjusted life years"[Title/Abstract] OR "quality adjusted life yr"[Title/Abstract] OR "quality adjusted lifeyears"[Title/Abstract] OR "disability adjusted life"[Title/Abstract] OR "disability adjusted life expectancy"[Title/Abstract] OR "disability adjusted life year"[Title/Abstract] OR "disability adjusted life year estimates"[Title/Abstract] OR "disability adjusted life year loss"[Title/Abstract] OR "disability adjusted life year loss rates"[Title/Abstract] OR "disability adjusted life years"[Title/Abstract] OR "disability adjusted life years daly"[Title/Abstract] OR treatment saving[Title/Abstract] OR "treatment savings"[Title/Abstract] OR "dental fee"[Title/Abstract] OR "dental fees"[Title/Abstract] OR "money"[Title/Abstract] Filters: Publication date from 1995/01/01 to 2013/12/31 #9 "humans"[mesh] #10 "Animals"[Mesh] OR "Animal Experimentation"[Mesh] #11 #1 AND #2 #12 #3 OR #4 OR #5 OR #6 #13 #10 NOT #9 #14 #11 AND #12 AND #8 #15 #14 NOT #13 #16 #15 NOT #7 CRD-YORK NHS EED, Searched: 12/2/2013Results: 50 Results for: ((fluorid* or fluorin* or flurin* or flurid*)) and ((Economic evaluation: ZDT and Bibliographic: ZPS) OR (Economic evaluation: ZDT and Abstract: ZPS)) IN NHSEED FROM 1995 TO 2013 Econ Lit (EBSCOhost), Searched: 12/2/2013Results: 25 Search modes - Boolean/Phrase, 1995-2013 S11 S5 OR S9 S10 S5 OR S9 S9 S1 AND S8 S8 S2 OR S3 OR S4 OR S6 OR S7 S6 fluorid* or fluorin* or flurin* or flurid* S5 fluoridation of water S4 teeth or plaque S3 dental or tooth S2 caries or carious S1 Water Embase (OVID), Searched: 12/3/2013Results: 17 1 fluoridation/ 2 exp "economic aspect"/ 3 exp "cost benefit analysis"/ 4 2 or 3 5 1 and 4 6 limit 5 to (exclude medline journals and yr="1995 -Current") ERIC (Pro Quest), Searched: 12/3/2013Results: 259 Search modes - Boolean/Phrase, 1995-2013 S8 S4 AND S7 S7 (economic* or cost* or expenditure* or utility or dollar* or wtp or "willingness to pay" or increment ) OR ( "lost productivity" or "sensitivity analysis" or breakeven or "break even" or discount* or value or qaly or daly or fee or fees or saving or savings or money ) OR ( "quality adjusted life" or "disability adjusted life" ) S4 S1 OR S2 OR S3 S3 caries or carious or dental or teeth or tooth or "oral health" S2 fluoridation of water S1 fluorid* OR flurid* OR fluorin* OR flurin* Social Sciences Citation Index SSCI (Web of Science), Searched: 11/26/2013Results: 34 # 10 # 8 AND #9 Databases=SSCI Timespan=1995-2013 # 9 TS=(cost*) or TS=(benefit*) or TS=(utility) or TS=(expenditure*) or TS=(dollar*) or TS=(wtp) or TS=(willingness near/2 pay) or TS=(increment*) or TS=(lost near/1 productivity) or TS=(sensitivity near/1 analysis) or TS=(breakeven) or TS=(break near/1 even) or TS=(discount*) or TS=(value) or TS=(qaly) or TS=(daly) or TS=(quality near/1 adjusted near/1 life) or TS=(disability near/1 adjusted) or TS=(treatment near/1 saving*) or TS=(dental near/1 fee*) or TS=(money) #8 #6 AND #7 # 7 #3 OR #4 OR #5 # 6 #1 AND #2 # 5 TS=(DMF near/1 index) # 4 TS=(caries) or TS=(cavit*) or TS=(carious) or TS=(decay*) or TS=(lesion*) or TS=(demineral*) or TS=(reminerali*) # 3 TS=(tooth) or TS=(teeth) or TS=(dental) or TS=(enamel) or TS=(dentin*) or TS=(root*) # 2 TS=(water*) # 1 TS=(fluorid*) or TS=(fluorin*) or TS=(flurin*) or TS=(flurid*) World Cat (, Searched: 12/3/2013Results: 42 Kw: fluorid* kw:water kw:economic* Kw: fluorid* kw:water kw:cost* Embase (OVID), Searched: 12/3/2013Results: 17 1 fluoridation/ 2 exp "economic aspect"/ 3 exp "cost benefit analysis"/ 4 2 or 3 5 1 and 4 6 limit 5 to (exclude medline journals and yr="1995 -Current") Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

[1] Although tooth decay can be prevented, it still affects more children in the United States than any other chronic infectious disease.

The systematic review was conducted on behalf of the CPSTF by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice, and policy related to oral health. review and the updated search for evidence showed a decrease in new dental caries after community water fluoridation began and an increase in new dental caries when it stopped. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation. Pontigo-Loyola AP, Islas-Márquez A, Loyola-Rodríguez JP, Maupome G, Marquez-Corona ML, Medina-Solis CE.

The finding updates and replaces the 2000 CPSTF finding on Dental Caries: Community Water Fluoridation [PDF - 255 k B]. Dental fluorosis in 12- and 15-year-olds at high altitudes in above-optimal fluoridated communities in Mexico. Ruan JP, Yang ZQ, Wang ZL, Astrøm AN, Bårdsen A, Bjorvatn K.

Community water fluoridation is supported by most major national and international health service organizations.

Supporters include: the American Dental Association, American Medical Association, American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the World Health Organization.

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